Experimental research on career-supportAiming to Expand “supported ‘dekiru'” for Students with Disabilities through a Career Support Project
In order to provide successive support to individual students with a disability, it is essential that adequate information be shared amongst support providers. The aim of this project is to examine how essential information can be identified and the relevant information should be conveyed in what forms and by what methods of communication. We conducted job training with students from a school for special needs education at a simulation shop in the university as a site where the pertaining information can be gathered, and an ideal form of career support be examined for the purpose of expanding the students’ “dekiru”. Regarding information forms and methods of communication, in collaboration with schools for special needs education in Kyoto City we examined “dekiru” information forms and the operation of systems for accumulating “dekiru”.
The expansion of “dekiru” is the key to career support
In this project, the targeted students’ behavior is expressed in terms of “supported ‘dekiru’,” that is, “when such and such kind of support is given, they will lead to such and such kind of ‘dekiru’.” When support providers are observing children’s behavior at school, they have a tendency to solely focus on the “behavior”. But when they widen their field of view to encompass changes in the environment before and after they occur, a new aspect of the child’s behavior becomes visible. By further incorporating the “supported ‘dekiru’” in the viewpoint, it is then possible to change the performance of the support providers to the child. For example, we have the information, “Boy A can brush his teeth.” Maybe all a support provider has to do is just stand beside Boy A at the sink while he brushes his teeth, and maybe it is necessary to prepare an illustrated step-by-step guide. It may also be necessary for the support provider to finish up the brushing. In order to establish “dekiru”, the support provider may require trials and errors. There might be cases in which, after a support given, more support would become necessary than before without establishing “dekiru”. If the “supported ‘dekiru’” information that “he can brush his teeth if a support provider finishes the brushing” is available, support providers will find out how to establish Boy A’s “dekiru”. They may even be able to find new ways of setting up the environment based on the information they are given. For Boy A, too, this can create new “dekiru.”
Ritsumeikan student job coach system: identifier of “dekiru”
Using the simulation shop set up in the university, Ritsumeikan student job coach system works to identify and expand this kind of “dekiru” in individuals with a disability. At the simulation shop in the university the factors affecting the behavior of the targeted students can be controlled by way of structuring. The setup can be customized in all sorts of ways in order to determine the environment in which the targeted students demonstrate maximal “dekiru”. Various situations such as when many customers to be dealt with come in a short time of period, when an unexpected question is asked, or when new staff is enrolled and training is needed for the staff can be considered for the setup, and the “dekiru” of the targeted students can be identified for active expansion.
Schools as receivers of “dekiru”
The answers to the questions as to what the “dekiru” information forms should be like and what kinds of methods of communication should be used was given by way of the performance of those receiving the “dekiru”. Even if a new “dekiru” is identified, it is meaningless if it is not effectively communicated to those on the receiving side. It can only be said that “dekiru” is expanded if the receivers obtain the “dekiru” information and actually attempt to implement support. When the information is not well utilized, this is not the fault of those receiving it. Here the behavior of the receivers, too, can be expressed in terms of “dekiru”. We continue to investigate what sorts of arrangements are necessary for receivers to induce getting support and what results cause them to maintain attempting “dekiru”. It is also necessary to discuss creating a system thereby support providers at schools not only be on the side of receivers but also on the side of identifier of “dekiru”.